The fauna of Jammu and Kashmir is unique and diverse due to its geographical location, allowing for influences of the Tibetan elements mixed with those of the Himalayan and the peninsular Indian elements. However, Kazinag is located in the western part of the state, the Jhelum river gorge allowing for elements from the outer Himalaya access to the valley. Thus this area sees faunal species such as the goral Nemorhaedus goral and the recently sighted wild boar Sus scrofa. The important large herbivores in Kazinag include markhor Capra falconeri, Kashmir musk deer Moschus cupereus, goral and wild boar. Markhor is a threatened species and needs immediate conservation intervention as illegal hunting, poorly-planned developmental activities, habitat fragmentation and livestock grazing has led to its precipitous decline. Currently, only about 350 individuals are left in a small part of its erstwhile distribution range in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Kashmir musk deer is endangered and poaching and livestock grazing are the main threats. Large carnivores include Himalayan brown bear Ursus arctos, Himalayan black bear Ursus thibetanus, common leopard Panthera pardus and the small carnivores include Yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula, leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensisand Himalayan Weasel Mustela sibrica. Himalayan grey langur Semnopithecus ajax and rhesus macaque Macaca mullata are the two primate species found here.